Three. They are: Copper-Zinc, Copper-Nickel, and Copper-Silicon.
The exact cost of using copper alloys in aquaculture enclosures depends on multiple factors such as the cage size and the transportation of materials to the building site, and then of the cage to the farming site. Overall, the total cost is offset by the long-term cost savings associated with longer service life, decreased fish losses, lowered maintenance, etc.
This publication features many of the different professions that work with copper every day and outlines why they consider it vital for their work. A video is also available on ECI YouTube account. http://youtu.be/mbyFDjX8cLI
Yes, this is covered in Def Stan 02-833. For extruded rods and sections of size 40mm and below, an anneal at 740°C plus or minus 20° followed by air cooling is carried out. This mandatory heat treatment is to eliminate phases which are likely to give rise to selective corrosion in sea water.
Led by the developing economies in Asia, global demand for copper products remained buoyant in 2007. According to the International Copper Study Group¹ refined usage increased by 4% to a record 18.3 million tonnes. While Europe’s demand was down by 2.5%, China’s economic expansion resulted in it using 27% of the world’s copper in 2007, up from 18% in just five years.
Copper production chain
Whether it is to improve the efficiency and performance of applications across energy and healthcare, or to make transportation, architecture and heating and cooling systems more environmentally friendly, copper has never been more important for the sustainable growth of the EU.
ECI, December 2014
The Coalition for ENERGY SAVINGS, March 2013
ECI, February 2013
Eurometaux, February 2014
ECI, September 2007