- ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΣΥΝΘΕΤΩΝ ΧΑΛΚΟΣΩΛΗΝΩΝ
- ΟΙΚΟΛΟΓΙΚΗ ΔΟΜΗΣΗ
- ΗΛΙΑΚΗ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑ
Kupari on ehdottoman välttämätön modernissa yhteiskunnassamme. Se johtaa sähköä ja puhdasta vettä koteihimme ja kaupunkeihimme ollen tärkeä osa kestävää kehitystä. Lisäksi kupari on elintärkeä kaikelle elämälle (englanniksi).
2009 was a difficult year for the copper industry value chain in Europe. The global financial crisis, which resulted in a severe tightening of credit and reprioritised public sector spending, led to dramatic declines in housing starts, lower industry investment and a reduction in the sales of consumer goods, such as cars and electrical products.
A collection of general education resources suitable for students aged 11–16.
2010 was a year of recovery in the copper business. Based on the most recent data from the International Copper Study Group1, European refined copper usage reached 4.18 million tonnes, up 8.7% from the depressed demand in 2009. With a close correlation between economic growth and copper usage, world demand reached 19.3 million tonnes, up 6.8% on 2009.
A collection of general education resources suitable for students aged 16–18.
2011 was a challenging year for the copper industry. Largely as a result of low activity levels in many national construction markets, the International Copper Study Group* expects EU27 refined copper usage to be slightly below the 2010 total of 3.33 million tonnes. Demand in the rest of Europe will increase by 35%, driven mainly by Russian tariffs which favoured the export of wire-rod over cathodes. Globally, refined demand will be close to 20 million tonnes, up 3.6% on 2010.
A collection of physics resources suitable for students aged 11–14.
2012 was a difficult year for the European copper industry. Due to a combination of Government austerity programs, stricter borrowing conditions for consumers and low activity levels, particularly in most national construction markets, the International Copper Study Group1 expects EU27 refined copper usage to be 3.1 million tonnes, 7% below the 2011 total. Globally, refined demand is expected to be around 20.7 million tonnes, up 4% on 2011.
A collection of physics resources suitable for students aged 14–16.
ECI, November 2013
A collection of physics resources suitable for students aged 16–18.