Effects Based Methods are a promising new tool, and are considered for use under the Water Framework Directive. Effects Based Methods are a holistic approach which could assess the risks of chemical substances more accurately. Substances are grouped by their mode of action, and specific methods are subsequently developed based on this mode of action to establish a trigger value. This allows for regulating substances with the same mode of action.
This report evaluates the use of 13 Effects Based Methods that might be considered for regulating metals under the Water Framework Directive. Each Effects Based Method was evaluated with respect to three criteria that are critical when considering such methods for regulatory use. These criteria include specificity, sensitivity (to metals and to other classes of toxicants), and the link to higher levels of biological organisation.
The evaluation concludes that that each of the available methods has at least one significant limitation. Therefore, Effects Based Methods are today not well suited for regulating metals under the Water Framework Directive. Additionally, since metals are easily and routinely measured, the added benefit of developing Effects Based Methods for metals is unclear. Instead, it is recommended to further focus on developing bioavailability models for metals mixtures. Such models would be a more practical and cost-effective tool to assess metals under the Water Framework Directive in a holistic way.
No. Copper is not susceptible to precipitation hardening.
- Class 1 is a forging whose failure would lead to uncontrollable flooding, the total immobilisation of the vessel or serious harm to personnel.(e.g. First Level systems in submarines).
- Class 2 is a forging whose failure would lead to severe but controllable flooding, the serious disruption of weapon systems, main propulsion machinery, or its attendant auxillaries, including generators
- Class 3 is a forging whose failure does not constitute an immediate, significant hazard.
- Class 4 is a forging which is used for forging stock only.
On average, copper alloy cages must be cleaned approximately once or twice a year, which is significantly fewer than traditional cages, over a service life.
ECI & actors from Europe’s energy sector, July 2015
ECI, February 2014
This publication highlights the main achievements of ECI, plus its network of Copper Development Associations, throughout the last 15 years. Items are divided into those that have helped to grow and defend markets for copper products and those focused on maintaining the industry’s market access and licence to operate.
ECI and its network of national associations in Europe, collectively part of the Copper Alliance, continued its efforts to defend and grow markets for copper, ensure fair market access for copper products, and support the copper industry’s license to operate.
ECI and its network of national associations in Europe, collectively part of the Copper Alliance, bring together the copper industry to develop markets for copper, ensure fair market access for copper products and support the copper industry’s license to operate. This report presents our association’s main activities in 2016 and describes, where appropriate, how they fit into the European legislative agenda.
ECI, February 2015