International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power System Programme Publishes New Report on PV Self-Consumption Policies

This unique report intends to provide tools for policymakers and Photovoltaic (PV) stakeholders in order to better understand the challenges and opportunities associated to the implementation of self-consumption policies for PV plants.

After years of fast PV market development driven by financial incentives and feed-in policies, PV has reached a level of competitiveness that allows to switch progressively to self-consumption measures.

The wide range of choices for self-consumption policies, including net-metering and net-billing have contributed to make the development of PV much more complex than previously. Moreover, the increased penetration of PV has created new challenges in terms of grid financing, tax management and impact on incumbent utilities.

While several countries or states are trying to circumvent the development of PV through self-consumption by using questionable arguments and measures, this report intends to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of self-consumption measures and provide reliable and unbiased arguments to develop such schemes.

  • This report aims first at providing a clear methodology to understand and compare all types of self-consumption policies. It proposes a clear set of parameters covering all existing and future self-consumption regulations.
  • Second, the report comprises an analysis of existing self-consumption measures in 20 key countries.
  • Third it compares the profitability of the five key self-consumption schemes and highlights the main challenges and opportunities associated to these schemes, especially with regard to grid financing, tax management and impact on incumbent utilities.
  • Fourth it looks at the influence of self-consumption measures on the PV market in the last years.

The report will be completed in the coming weeks by a set of policy recommendations.

Download the full report here.

This report has been prepared by IEA-PVPS Task 1, in close collaboration with CREARA Energy Experts, and with the support of the European Copper Institute, sponsor member of the IEA-PVPS Technology Collaboration Program.


The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative R&D Agreements (Technology Collaboration Programmes) established within the IEA and, since its establishment in 1993, the PVPS participants have been conducting a variety of joint projects in the application of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electricity. The 29 PVPS members are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, EPIA, the European Union, Finland, France, Germany, the International Copper Alliance, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, SEIA, SEPA, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, and the United States of America.

About the European Copper Institute

The European Copper Institute is a joint venture between the International Copper Association Ltd. (ICA), headquartered in New York, representing the majority of the world’s leading mining companies, custom smelters and semi-fabricators, and the European copper industry. ECI is also part of the Copper Alliance, an international network of industry associations.  Its shared mission is to work, with its members, to defend and grow markets for copper based on its superior technical performance and contributions to a higher quality of life. Considering the strong linkages between carbon reductions and copper use, Copper Alliance aims to accelerate the energy transition through its Leonardo ENERGY initiative.

About CREARA Energy Experts

Since its creation in 2003, CREARA has established itself as a leading expert in renewable energy, energy efficiency and smart grids. Its main services are outsourced energy management, strategic and regulatory consulting and engineering. CREARA helps businesses and public entities to do more with less on a daily basis.

Contact for further information: Gaëtan Masson, Task 1 Operating Agent